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Twitter的分布式自增ID算法snowflake (Java版)

Twitter的分布式自增ID算法snowflake (Java版) published on Twitter的分布式自增ID算法snowflake (Java版)无评论

概述

分布式系统中,有一些需要使用全局唯一ID的场景,这种时候为了防止ID冲突可以使用36位的UUID,但是UUID有一些缺点,首先他相对比较长,另外UUID一般是无序的。

有些时候我们希望能使用一种简单一些的ID,并且希望ID能够按照时间有序生成。

而twitter的snowflake解决了这种需求,最初Twitter把存储系统从MySQL迁移到Cassandra,因为Cassandra没有顺序ID生成机制,所以开发了这样一套全局唯一ID生成服务。

结构

snowflake的结构如下(每部分用-分开):

0 – 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0 – 00000 – 00000 – 000000000000

第一位为未使用,接下来的41位为毫秒级时间(41位的长度可以使用69年),然后是5位datacenterId和5位workerId(10位的长度最多支持部署1024个节点) ,最后12位是毫秒内的计数(12位的计数顺序号支持每个节点每毫秒产生4096个ID序号)

一共加起来刚好64位,为一个Long型。(转换成字符串长度为18)

snowflake生成的ID整体上按照时间自增排序,并且整个分布式系统内不会产生ID碰撞(由datacenter和workerId作区分),并且效率较高。据说:snowflake每秒能够产生26万个ID。

源码

(JAVA版本的源码)

/** Snowflake */
public class IdWorker {

  private final long twepoch = 1288834974657L;
  private final long workerIdBits = 5L;
  private final long datacenterIdBits = 5L;
  private final long maxWorkerId = -1L ^ (-1L << workerIdBits);
  private final long maxDatacenterId = -1L ^ (-1L << datacenterIdBits);
  private final long sequenceBits = 12L;
  private final long workerIdShift = sequenceBits;
  private final long datacenterIdShift = sequenceBits + workerIdBits;
  private final long timestampLeftShift = sequenceBits + workerIdBits + datacenterIdBits;
  private final long sequenceMask = -1L ^ (-1L << sequenceBits);

  private long workerId;
  private long datacenterId;
  private long sequence = 0L;
  private long lastTimestamp = -1L;

  public IdWorker(long workerId, long datacenterId) {
    if (workerId > maxWorkerId || workerId < 0) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException(String.format("worker Id can't be greater than %d or less than 0", maxWorkerId));
    }
    if (datacenterId > maxDatacenterId || datacenterId < 0) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException(String.format("datacenter Id can't be greater than %d or less than 0", maxDatacenterId));
    }
    this.workerId = workerId;
    this.datacenterId = datacenterId;
  }

  public synchronized long nextId() {
    long timestamp = timeGen();
    if (timestamp < lastTimestamp) {
      throw new RuntimeException(String.format("Clock moved backwards.  Refusing to generate id for %d milliseconds", lastTimestamp - timestamp));
    }
    if (lastTimestamp == timestamp) {
      sequence = (sequence + 1) & sequenceMask;
      if (sequence == 0) {
        timestamp = tilNextMillis(lastTimestamp);
      }
    } else {
      sequence = 0L;
    }

    lastTimestamp = timestamp;

    return ((timestamp - twepoch) << timestampLeftShift) | (datacenterId << datacenterIdShift) | (workerId << workerIdShift) | sequence;
  }

  protected long tilNextMillis(long lastTimestamp) {
    long timestamp = timeGen();
    while (timestamp <= lastTimestamp) {
      timestamp = timeGen();
    }
    return timestamp;
  }

  protected long timeGen() {
    return System.currentTimeMillis();
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    IdWorker idWorker = new IdWorker(0, 0);
    for (int i = 0; i < 1000; i++) {
      long id = idWorker.nextId();
      System.out.println(id);
    }
  }
}

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